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Equipment
 

The experimental basis of laboratory is two ultrahigh vacuum multi-chamber setups adapted for surface chemical reactions study. Now we are also able to perform in situ nanostructures creation and their study. All technological and measurement processes are controlled by IBM compatible computers with original software.

As technological tools we use:

  • Cooling (by LN2 circulation) and heating (by Ta wire radiation and electron beam) from 95 to 1600 K
  • active gas inlet (by means of piezoceramic leak valve) controlled by computer with mass-spectrometer back-loop.
  • ion bombardment (RIBER CI-10, CI50RB ion guns) for sample preparation and STM tips sharpening.

As analytical methods we use:

Surface spectroscopic (composition and chemical state measurements)

  • SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering). A Raman spectroscopic apparatus coupled with an ultra-high vacuum system equipped with typical surface science measurements, such as LEED, and AES and VT STM. This apparatus can be used for the vibrational characterization of small metal particles at surfaces.
  • PL (Photoluminescence). Realized on the same spectrometer as SERS.
  • AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy). Standard measurement of surface composition. We also use Factor Analysis for Auger spectra treatment permitting to draw the concentration profiles of chemical compositions along the process on the surface.
  • TDS (thermal desorption spectroscopy). This is a classic technique for obtaining data on surface phases. Can be employed for mass-spectrometry, AES, and SERS.

- Surface crystallographic (structural measurements at low lateral resolution)

  • LEED (Low Energy Electron Diffraction). LEED is a classic surface crystallographic tool.
  • EELFS (Extended Energy Loss Fine Structure). EELFS is based on the analysis of the energy loss that an electron beam undergoes when exciting an electronic transition in an atom in a solid. Measurements can be performed by means of the setup used for AES.

- Local structural probes (structural measurements at atomic scale lateral resolution)

  • STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy). A custom built, ultra high vacuum STM system is available. This system offers excellent performances compared to existing commercial apparatuses, providing routine atomic resolution on non metallic systems, and in specific conditions on metallic ones, such as clean copper or silver. A new STM capable of measurements at variable temperatures is at presently being assembled.

First setup consists of four chambers: STM chamber, preparation chamber, main analytical chamber and in-lock chamber (fig.1).

Second setup also consists of four chambers: STM chamber, STM tip preparation chamber, main analytical chamber and in-lock chamber. Variable Temperature STM unites with optical spectrometer for SERS and PL measurements.

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In addition, our gallery was updated with a MM Director presentation, devoted to carbon nanotubes.


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